IRP DUE DATE: Monday, May 9th, 2011

Welcome to Mr. Taylor's Independent Research Project for SCH3U


Part of your project will be to develop a wiki on Solution Chemistry and Gases/Atmospheric Chemistry. In your groups of 3 (a few topics will have groups of 4) you will be given a certain sub-topic that you will have to prepare and edit for the class. Your wiki will include a brief history, a detailed explanation, diagrams or pictures (where applicable), formulas/calculation, glossary and sample problems. Your contribution should demonstrate approximately 5-8 hours of work, including research, writing and editing. Each section will also include several textbook problems that are to be completed by each person in your group (see table below). These questions are to be posted as the minimum (you may add more) number of sample problems. Every person in the class will complete all questions and will be using your wiki as an exemplar.

Solution Chemistry Topics


Defining a Solution: (Zach)

  • Describe what a solution is, the different parts and how they are classified. Focus on aqueous solutions and what makes water such as good solvent (polarity, hydrogen bonding, etc.). Explain the process of the formation of solutions by dissolving both ionic and covalent compounds in water (use graphic representations to aid your descriptions). Also explain solutions produced by dissolving non-polar solutes in non-polar solvents and the like-dissolves-like rule.

Concentration (Nigel and Robert)

  • Explain concentration (use a graphic representation to aid your description) and how it is calculated. Explain the difference between dilute and concentrated and the various ways of expressing concentrations (e.g., moles per litre, grams per 100 mL, parts per million or parts per billion, mass, volume per cent, etc) and when these are useful. Be sure to give examples of each case. Describe how solutions are prepared and explain what standard and stock solutions are. Explain how solutions are diluted, focusing on the calculations and techniques. You will be performing these in class so focus on the glassware and how to use the various pieces of equipment (volumetric flasks, scale, pipettes, etc).

Solubility (N/A)

  • Explain solubility of solids, liquids and gases. Describe saturated and unsaturated solutions, how they are formed and where they are found. Give specific examples. Explain solubility curves, how they are created and what they are used for. Explain the effects of changes in temperature and pressure on the solubility of solids, liquids and gases (e.g. explain how a change in temp. or atmospheric pressure will affect the dissolved oxygen concentrations in lake water). Explain crystallization, focusing on both the usefulness and drawbacks of this chemical process. Describe the solubility categories (high, low and insoluble), how they are determined and how to use a solubility chart. Explain the hard water problem many homes face and how it is fixed - focusing on the chemistry involved.

Reactions Involving Solutions (Tyler and Nick)

  • Explain the role of solvents and solutes, how to determine total and net ionic equations (give a thorough, detailed explanation using both description and graphic representation). Explain qualitative/quantitative chemical analysis of solutions and their role in the laboratory and in industry (especially concerning water quality and pollution). Be sure to explain the various techniques used and the chemical concepts they are basedon. Explain our drinking water in terms of contaminants (both what they are and where they come from), acceptable limits, acid rain, and water treatment (drinking water, waste water and bottled water).

Acids and Bases (Akiv, Sydney, and Warren)

  • Explain what defines an acid and a base and how they relate to solution chemistry. Explain the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases. Explain the difference between strong and weak acids, and between strong and weak bases (in terms of degree of ionization). Explain pH and how it is measured, explain the pH scale and how it relates to the concentration of an acid or base. Briefly explain how the Brønsted-Lowry theory extended the Arrhenius theory to compounds that did not follow the Arrhenius "rules" but still exhibited acidic or basic properties. Explain titration reactions (you will be doing one so be sure to mention technique as well as the chemistry behind them), focusing on determining concentration of an unknown acid or base by using a known concentration. For example, how would you determine the concentration of acetic acid in vinegar using a known concentration of sodium hydroxide?

Water Pollution and Safe Drinking Water (Vanessa and Kailey)

  • Analyse the origins of pollutants in our water ways (landfill leaching, farmland runoff, industrial pollutants, chemical spills, household hazardous waste, pharmaceuticals, golf course pesticides, etc). Investigate and report on the costs (economic, social and environmental) of building and maintaining municipal water treatment plants. How effective is our water treatment? Investigate and report on the "contaminants" we knowingly add to drinking water (chlorine, fluoride, etc) as well as the "acceptable limits" of other contaminants and pollutants. Investigate and report on the regulations regarding tap water vs. those of bottled water. Is all bottled water the same and is it really better for us than tap/well water? How do humans impact local water systems (lakes, rivers, streams, ponds, marshes and wetlands, and oceans).

Gases/Atmospheric Chemistry

Gases and the Gas Laws (Chris)

  • Describe the different states of matter, and explain their differences in terms of the forces between atoms, molecules, and ions. Explain the kinetic molecular theory to explain the properties and behaviour of gases in terms of types and degrees of molecular motion. Describe the quantitative relationships that exist between the variables of pressure, volume, temperature, and amount of substance for an ideal gas (i.e. conditions like STP, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay-Lussac’s law, the combined gas law, and the ideal gas law).
  • Describe the mixture of gases and Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure. Explain the application of this law and how it relates to reactions of gases and Avagadro's theory about molar volumes. Explain Avogadro’s hypothesis and how his contribution to the gas laws has increased our understanding of the chemical reactions of gases.
  • Solve quantitative problems by performing calculations based on Boyle’s law, Charles’s law, Gay-Lussac’s law, the combined gas law, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, and the ideal gas law. Use stoichiometry to solve problems related to chemical reactions involving gases (e.g., problems involving moles, number of atoms, number of molecules, mass, and volume).

Atmospheric Chemistry (Andrew, Peter and Jarrod)

  • Identify the major and minor components of the Earth's atmosphere, the nitrogen cycle, ground level ozone vs. the ozone layer, common air pollutants (their source, concentrations, effects, and government protocols set to reduce these harmful emissions). Explain what is meant by carbon footprint and how it is calculated. Investigate and report on Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and the initiatives (both current and planned) aimed at reducing our carbon footprint. Are these initiatives (Drive Clean, industry regulations, public transit, etc) effective? Be sure to support your responses with referenced facts. Hint: Environment Canada is a useful resource and has an Air Quality Index and other helpful information...


Topic
Page(s)
Questions
Defining a solution
269
277
279
280
1,3, 4,6,8
3,4
7(a,c,e), 10
1
Concentration
284
287-8
302
306-7
329-30
1, 2, 5, 6
11, 13, 15, 17
1, 2
6, 7 2, 4, 5, 7
1, 6 1, 2, 3, 4
Solubility
316-7
319
325
326
332-3
1, 2
6
11, 12
1, 2
1, 2
Reactions Involving Solutions
332-3
335
337
342-3
346
355
1, 2
3, 4, 5
3
2,3
5, 7 1, 2
1
Acids and Bases
367
368
371
375
379
389
392
399
401
2, 4, 6
10
2, 3, 4
1, 3, 6
5
18, 20
10
5, 6, 8
2
Water Pollution and Safe Drinking Water
294-5
299
337
340
1, 2
11, 12
2
1
Gases and Gas Laws
422-3
425
428
432
434
435
438
445
463
468
471
474-5
1, 2 // 2, 3
1, 2
5, 7
12, 13, 14
16, 17
22, 23
26, 27, 28
2, 3, 4
5, 7
3, 4
8
2, 3, 4
Atmospheric Chemistry
453
454
479
480
488
1, 2, 3, 4
1, 2, 4, 7
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
1, 5
3 <-- we havnt learned anything like this..